ACL Injury Overview
The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is one of 4 major ligaments within the knee joint.  Whereas collateral ligaments are located on the sides of the knee, the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments are found in the middle, behind the kneecap.  The specific function of the ACL is to connect the shin and thigh bones, maintaining their proper placement and promoting knee stability.

Symptoms of ACL Injuries
An injury to the ACL is often readily obvious and identifiable with one or more of the following symptoms:

  • A & pop & that is heard and/or felt upon injury
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Knee instability
  • Difficulty straightening the knee

Grades of ACL Injuries
ACL injuries are classified as Grade 1, 2 or 3.  Determining this grade is based on severity and symptoms.  The treatment protocol will also rely heavily on the grade of the injury or tear.

Grade 1 -

The ACL is intact and the knee is stable.  However, the ligament has been mildly damaged with evidence of overstretching and micro-tearing.  Likely treatment includes temporary immobilization and physical therapy.

Grade 2 -

 The ACL is partially torn and the knee is somewhat unstable.  Treatment for grade 2 ACL injuries will also include immobilization and physical therapy.  However, some patients may also require surgical repair.

Grade 3 -

- There is a complete tear of the ligament and no stability in the knee. Patients with a grade 3 injury will most likely require surgery followed by an extended rehabilitation period.

Types of ACL Surgery
For those patients who do require surgical repair of the ACL, a graft will be used to replace the damaged section of the ligament.  This graft will use a section of the tendon that can either be taken from the patient (autograft) or a cadaver (allograft).  The most commonly used grafts include:

Patellar Tendon Autograft-

This tendon (also known as the patellar ligament)connects the tibia (shin bone) to the patella (kneecap).

Hamstring Tendon Autograft - 

The hamstring tendon connects the hamstring muscles at the back of the thigh to the tibia.

Allograft (Various Types) -

When taken from a cadaver, the graft may be created using the hamstring, patellar, Achilles, posterior tibialis, semitendinosus, or gracilis tendon.

Bariatric Surgery

Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through the removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery).

The success of your bariatric surgery requires commitment and several significant lifestyle changes.
You’ll need to watch portion sizes, eat healthful foods, and take up an exercise regimen. So apart from weight loss, bariatric surgery has many other health benefits.

Working alongside your bariatric care team, you may experience the following health benefits following your bariatric surgery:

Treatment of Diabetes:

Research suggests that people with type 2 diabetes who undergo bariatric surgery may experience long-term remission of the disease. If you have type 2 diabetes and maintain weight loss following bariatric surgery, you could modify or eliminate your diabetes medication.

Healthier Heart:

Heart: Losing weight can help you reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke by significantly lowering blood pressure and cholesterol levels

Lowering Joint and Low Back Pain:

Pain: When you shed weight, you take the pressure off of the weight-bearing joints in your hips, knees and low back, potentially allowing you to cut down or eliminate the need for pain-relieving medication.

Better Sleep:

Sleep: If you suffer from obesity-related sleep apnoea, losing weight through bariatric surgery could help improve the condition and eliminate your need for treatment, including the CPAP machine.

Improved Mood:

Mood: People who lose weight may experience improvements in depression, body image, and social isolation— all measures of mental and emotional health.

Bariatric Surgery helps weight loss which in turn helps improve following medical conditions:

  • Metabolic Syndrome
  • Infertility
  • Gallbladder Disease
  • Pregnancy Complications
  • Fatty Liver Disease
  • Urinary Incontinence
  • Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis

Neurological Care

How to Minimize Stress
Stressors can make our bodies release stress hormones like cortisol and adrenaline. When hormones are frequently released, it can lead to high blood pressure, lowered immune responses, heart attacks, anxiety, depression, and panic attacks. It is important for your physical and mental health to manage stress.

5 Ways to Reduce Stress

Eating Better

A balanced diet that gives you good nutrition helps your body handle stress better. By eating whole, real foods and staying away from overly processed foods, you’ll restore balance and reduce the effects of stress on your body.

Stay Active

The benefits of exercise extend past your body, it helps your mind too. Exercising just 20-minutes daily such as running, walking, dancing or swimming can give you immediate relief and boost your mood.

Take a Break

Avoid stressful situations by going out for a walk, talking to friends, getting more sleep, and learning to manage your time more efficiently. It is important to take time for yourself daily, even just for a few minutes.


Smiling and laughing are two of the best ways to feel immediate relief from stress, and it has a biological basis. Your brain is connected to your facial expressions. Laughing and smiling sends signals to your brain that you’re not stressed and helps relieve the tension.

Develop a Social Network

Turning to friends and family members when you’re feeling stressed is an important part of stress reduction. Express your concerns and share your feelings with someone who will listen and understand.

5 Relaxation Techniques for Stress Management

Some stress-relieving techniques that can help include:


Breathing deeply for a minute or so on a daily basis can slow down your heart rate, lower your blood pressure, and relieve stress and anxiety. Slowly inhale through your nose and exhale from your mouth.

Deep Breathing

Breathing deeply for a minute or so on a daily basis can slow down your heart rate, lower your blood pressure, and relieve stress and anxiety. Slowly inhale through your nose and exhale from your mouth.

Create & Use a Mantra

Develop a mantra to use when you’re starting to feel overwhelmed or stressed. A mantra such as: “I am at peace.” is great to use. Close your eyes. Repeat your mantra 10 times for stress relief.

Guided Imagery

Close your eyes, shut down your thoughts, and imagine peaceful images in your mind. Conjure up soothing scenes in your mind to help you relax and focus. To learn more ways on how you can manage stress and engage in different stress management techniques, schedule your appointment today with Complete Neurological Care, conveniently located in Mansarovar, Jaipur. Our center provides the skills and technology necessary to diagnose and treat common neurological concerns.

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